Join us   Log in   jmsr2014@yahoo.com  

Abstract


JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL RESEARCH - Vol. VII, n 2, December, 2020

Pages: 817-820

Taxation of Beverages and Sweetened Products in Morocco:

A Major Achievement and a Model to Follow In the Mena Region.

Jamal Belkhadir, Mostafa Brahimi, Hassan Aguenaou, Hicham El Berri, Latifa Belakhal, Fatima Gouaima Mazzi, Kebira Benabed

Category: JMSR Public Health

Download PDF

Abstract:

The analysis of the various reports of the epidemiological situation of obesity and diabetes in Morocco with in particular the reports of the WHO, the High Commission for Planning of Morocco (HCP) and the report of the American Mc Kinsey Study Bureau in 2014, shows a sharp increase in diabetes, obesity and their morbidity and mortality.

With a Moroccan population of 35 million inhabitants in 2017, the number of people with diabetes (2.5 million), pre-diabetes (2.4 million), obesity (3.6 million), overweight (10 million including 63% of women and 16% of children) is alarming. The consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality and direct and indirect health costs through reduced productivity for the economy of Morocco and for society as a whole are very high. Total annual expenditure related to obesity amounts to $ 2.4 billion, or 3% of Morocco's GDP.

The causes of this increase in obesity and diabetes are closely linked to profound changes in lifestyle: high-calorie diet rich in fast sugars, reduction in physical activity, etc. This is how it is demonstrated that too much consumption of sugary drinks is harmful to weight maintenance, metabolic balance and cardiovascular health. Conversely in many experiments around the world, the number of people with overweight and a risk of diabetes decreases significantly when the reduction of refined sugars is carried out by several preventive measures including increasing the tax on sodas, juices and other sugary drinks.

The members of the Working Group who have been working together for several years in Morocco on the “Taxation of sweet products” within the framework of the Moroccan League for the Fight against Diabetes and the Moroccan Society of Nutrition, Health and Environment, have carried out multiple actions advocacy and sensitization with the government, the ministry of health, the parliament, the university, civil society and the media.

The soda tax was finally adopted by the Moroccan Parliament in the 2019 finance bill. A first in the Middle East and North Africa region. In December 2019, a new acquisition was made during the discussion of the Finance Law Project (FLP) 2020 by the introduction of a progressive Internal Consumption Tax (ICT) on sugary drinks in proportion to their sugar concentration. The aim is to encourage manufacturers to reduce the sugar content of sugary drinks and energy drinks to avoid over-taxation.

On the other hand, the support recently given in 2020 by the National Council of Human Rights of Morocco to this tax constitutes a very large acquisition, with a new institutional and socio-cultural dimension of human rights for the preservation health in Morocco. Members of the working group will continue their efforts to extend this tax to all products containing a significant amount of sugar. The same is true for other toxic products such as salt, fat and tobacco.

Keywords: Diabetes, Obesity, Prevention, Tax soda, Morocco

References:

  1. Josefin E Lofvenborg, et al. Sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Endocrinology (2016) 175, 605–614.
  2. Matthew P. Pase. Sugar-and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risks of Incident Stroke and Dementia. Stroke. 2017; 48: 1139- 1146. DOI: 10.1161/strokeaha.116.016027.
  3. Kmietowicz Z. Type 2 diabetes: sweetened drinks pose greater risk than other sugary foods. BMJ 2018; 363: k4943.
  4. Iffat R., et al. The relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and risk of heart failure in men. Heart 2015; 101: 1961–1965. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-307542.
  5. Qibin Qi, et al. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Genetic Risk of Obesity. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1387-1396.
  6. Jiantao Ma, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with change of visceral adipose tissue over 6 years of follow-up. Circulation. 2016; 133: 370–377.
  7. Boulton J, et al. How much sugar is hidden in drinks marketed to children? A survey of fruit juices, juice drinks and smoothies. BMJ Open 2016; 6: e010330. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010330.
  8. J. Belkhadir, Diabetes and the Prospect of a National and Global Disaster. Journal of Medical and Surgical Research –JMSR- 2015; I (3): 77- 78.
  9. Ma Y, He FJ, Yin Y, Hashem KM, Mac Gregor GA. Gradual reduction of sugar in soft drinks without substitution as a strategy to reduce overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes: a modelling study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2016; 4: 105–14.
  10. Schilinger D. Guidelines to limit added sugar intake: jenk science or jenk food? Editorial. Ann Intern Med; 166: 305-306. 02/2017.
  11. Enquête Nationale sur les facteurs de risque communs des Maladies Non transmissibles 2017-2018. https://www.sante.gov.ma/Publications/Etudes_enquete/Pages/default.aspx
  12. WHO 2016 Risk of premature mortality due to NCDs : https://www.who.int/nmh/countries/mar_en.pdf?ua=1
  13. Rapport annuel Global de l’AMO, ANAM, 2018. http://www.anam.ma/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/RAG2018-VF.pdf (accessed Sept 26, 2020).
  14. Choo VL, et al. Food sources of fructose-containing sugars and glycaemic control: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. BMJ. 2018 Nov 21;363: k4644.
  15. Diana Quirmbach, et al. Effect of increasing the price of sugar-sweetened beverages on alcoholic beverage purchases: an economic analysis of sales data. J Epidemiol Community Health 2018;72: 324–330. doi:10.1136/jech-2017-20979
  16. Duffey KJ, Gordon-Larsen P, Shikany JM, Guilkey D, Jacobs DR Jr, Popkin BM. Food Price and Diet and Health Outcomes: 20 Years of the CARDIA Study. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170: 420.
  17. Yuan Ma, et al. Gradual reduction of sugar in soft drinks without substitution as a strategy to reduce overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes: a modelling study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2016; 4:105–14. January 6, 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S2213-8587(15)00477-5.
  18. Crétois J. Maroc : en taxant davantage les boissons sucrées, le royaume veut guérir de son diabète – Jeune Afrique. 2018; published online Nov 14. https://www.jeuneafrique.com/664200/societe/maroc-en-taxant-davantage-les-boissons-sucrees-le-royaume-veut-guerir-de-son-diabete/ (accessed Sept 26, 2020).
  19. Stratégie Nationale Multisectorielle de Prévention et de Contrôle des Maladies Non Transmissibles 2019- 2029, Ministère de la Santé : https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:MYdflt6721UJ:https://www.sante.gov.ma/Documents/2019/02/Plan%2520Strate%25CC%2581gique.pdf+&cd=1&hl=fr&ct=clnk&gl=ma
  20. Rapport du Conseil National des Droits de l’Homme 2019. Mars 2020 (version arabe) https://cndh.ma/sites/default/files/ltqryr_lsnwy_2019.pdf
  21. Mémorandum du CNDH sur le nouveau modèle de développement intitulé « l’effectivité des droits et liberté au Maroc. Pour un nouveau contrat social ». diffusé en Aout 2020.http://www.maroc.ma/fr/actualites/le-cndh-presente-son-memorandum-sur-le-nouveau-modele-de-developpement

DOI: 10.46327/msrjg.1.000000000000176

DOI URL: https://doi.org/10.46327/msrjg.1.000000000000176